Faculty Directory

Bernal, Santiago

Bernal, Santiago

Associate Research Scientist
Institute for Research in Electronics & Applied Physics
1202D Energy Research Facility

EDUCATION

  • Ph.D., Physics, University of Maryland College Park, 1999
  • M.S., Physics, Georgia Institute of Technology, 1983
  • B.S., Physics, National University of Colombia, 1981

BACKGROUND

Dr. Bernal received a B.S. in physics from the National University of Colombia in 1981, a M.S. in physics from Georgia Institute of Technology in 1983, and a Ph.D. in physics from the University of Maryland in 1999.   Dr. Bernal joined the Institute for Research in Electronics and Applied Physics in 2000.   He has been the leading experimentalist on the University of Maryland Electron Ring since joining IREAP.

PROFESSIONAL MEMBERSHIPS

  • Member, American Physical Society
  • Member, American Association of Physics Teachers

Google Scholar

  • Beam and accelerator physics
  • All aspects of experimental physics of intense charged particles beams (instrumentation, diagnostics, computer simulations)
  • Thermodynamics
  • Statistical mechanics
  • Educational aspects of physics

 


RECENT PAPERS:

  1. S. Bernal, B. Beaudoin, H. Baumgartner, et al., "Ultra-Low Current Beams in UMER to Model Space-Charge Effects in High-Energy Proton and Ion Machines," AAC16, National Harbor, MD, Aug. 3, 2016.
  2. S. Bernal, B. Beaudoin, L. Dovlatyan, S. Ehrenstein, I. Haber, R. A. Kishek, E. Montgomery, and D. Sutter, "Low Space-Charge Intensity Beams in UMER via Collimation and Solenoid Focusing", Cornell University Library, Oct. 2018; arXiv:1810.04264.

Books:

A Practical Introduction to Beam Physics and Particle Accelerators, Second Edition, by Santiago Bernal (University of Maryland), (The Institute of Physics (IOP) and Morgan and Claypool Publishers, 2018); doi: 10.1088/978-1-64327-090-6.

The second edition of this book maintains the same general character of the first edition as a brief exposition of the principles of beam physics and particle accelerators with emphasis on numerical examples. We have revised every section and expanded the discussion with new material and/or figures, improved notation, and new or enhanced computer resources. We have also reorganized the contents and added a few sections. The latter include material on transfer maps, thermodynamics of beams, additional aspects of envelope matching, betatron resonances and dispersion with space charge, closed orbits, and beam cooling. The appendix has been completely reorganized, revised and updated and now includes short descriptions of the map code MARYLIE, and the particle-in-cell code WARP.

The examples and computer exercises comprise basic lens and deflectors, fringe fields, lattice and beam functions, synchrotron radiation, beam envelope matching, betatron resonances, dispersion, transverse and longitudinal space charge, and closed orbits. The last chapter presents examples of two major types of particle accelerators: radio frequency linear accelerators (RF linacs) and storage rings, and sections on closed orbits and beam cooling. Lastly, the appendix gives the reader a brief description of the computer tools employed and concise instructions for their installation and use in the most popular computer platforms (Windows, Macintosh and Ubuntu Linux). Hyperlinks to websites containing all relevant files are also included. An essential component of the book is its website (actually part of the author’s website at the University of Maryland). It contains the files that reproduce results given in the text as well as additional material such as technical notes and movies. We will add new or updated material as it is developed. We have chosen Mathcad and Matlab for most examples, but we will add Python scripts in the near future.

Chapter 1:  Rays, Matrices, and Transfer Maps































































































































































































































































Chapter 2:  Linear Magnetic Lenses and Deflectors































































































































































































































































Chapter 3:  Periodic Lattices and Functions































































































































































































































































Chapter 4:  Emittance and Space Charge































































































































































































































































Chapter 5:  Longitudinal Beam Dynamics and Radiation































































































































































































































































Chapter 6:  Envelope Matching, Resonances, and Dispersion































































































































































































































































Chapter 7:  Linacs and Rings (Examples), Closed Orbit, and Beam Cooling































































































































































































































































Appendix: Computer Resources and Their Use

A Practical Introduction to Beam Physics and Particle Accelerators, by Santiago Bernal (University of Maryland), (The Institute of Physics (IOP) and Morgan and Claypool Publishers, 2016); doi: 10.1088/978-1-6817-4076-8.  The book's goal is to teach the principles of beam physics and particle accelerators through specific examples employing readily available computer tools. These include general high-end languages such as Mathcad and MatLab, as well as more specialized particle accelerator codes (e.g., MAD, WinAgile, Elegant, and others). This approach allows the student to readily identify relevant design parameters and their scaling. In addition, the computer input files can serve as templates that can be easily adapted to other related accelerators.

The examples presented comprise basic lens and deflector calculations, fringe fields, lattice and beam functions, envelope matching, and linear transverse and longitudinal space charge. The last part of the book presents examples of two major types of particle accelerators: Radio Frequency (RF) Linacs and Storage Rings. Lastly, the appendix gives the reader a brief description of the computer tools employed and concise instructions for their installation and use in the most popular computer platforms (Windows, Macintosh and Ubuntu Linux). Hyperlinks to websites containing all relevant files are also included.

Chapter 1:  Rays and Matrices































































































































































































































































Chapter 2:  Linear Magnetic Lenses and Deflectors































































































































































































































































Chapter 3:  Periodic Lattices and Functions































































































































































































































































Chapter 4:  Emittance and Space Charge































































































































































































































































Chapter 5:  Longitudinal Beam Dynamics and Radiation































































































































































































































































Chapter 6:  Applications and Examples































































































































































































































































Appendix: Computer Resources and Their Use

Modern Devices: The Simple Physics of Sophisticated Technology, by Charles L. Joseph (Rutgers University) and Santiago Bernal (University of Maryland), (John Wiley & Sons, 2016); ISBN: 9780470900437.

This book discusses the principles of physics through applications of state-of-the-art technologies and advanced instruments. The authors use diagrams, sketches, and graphs coupled with equations and mathematical analyses to enhance the reader's understanding of modern devices. Readers will learn to identify common underlying physical principles that govern several types of devices, while gaining an understanding of the performance trade-off imposed by the physical limitations of various processing methods. The topics discussed in the book assume readers have taken an introductory physics course, college algebra, and have a basic understanding of calculus.

COURSE MATERIAL: EE686 Material

Orcid: 0000-0001-8287-6601